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陕西省空巢老人抑郁现状及影响因素分析
Analysis on the status of depression and its influencing factors in empty-nest elderly in Shaanxi Province

王侠 化前珍 段思柳 李英 张飒乐 程颖 刘芳娥

Wang Xia, Hua Qianzhen, Duan Siliu, Li Ying, Zhang Sale, Cheng Ying

【摘要】目的 了解陕西省空巢老人抑郁发生情况及影响因素,为降低空巢老人抑郁发生提供依 据。方法 2016年7—8月,采用方便抽样方法选择陕西省内60岁及以上常住老人为调查对象,其中空 巢老人504人,非空巢老人194人。采用老年抑郁量表(GDS)、社会支持量表、自行设计的陕西省老年人 一般情况调查表进行问卷调查。采用ANOVA分析空巢老人抑郁得分情况,用Pearson分析进行空巢老人 社会支持与抑郁症状的相关性,用二元Logistic回归分析抑郁影响因素。结果 空巢老人抑郁检出率为 45.63%,非空巢老人抑郁检出率为32.99%,两组抑郁程度比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=10.447,P<0.05)。空 巢老人GDS得分为(9.68±5.26)分,非空巢老人为(8.51±4.69)分,差异有统计学意义(t=7.390,P < 0.01)。 二元Logistic 回归分析显示,居住方式(OR=0.596)、文化程度(OR=0.799)、年龄(OR=1.394)、居住地 (OR=1.699)、晚年生活幸福度(OR=1.663)、目前生活状况满意度(OR=1.474)与抑郁症状相关(P < 0.05)。 Pearson相关分析显示,空巢老人社会支持与抑郁呈负相关(r=-0.260,P < 0.01)。结论 空巢老人的抑 郁发生率高,抑郁严重影响着空巢老人的身心健康,应采取有针对性的措施,为空巢老人提供更全面的 社会支持,提高空巢老人的生活质量,降低抑郁的发生。
【摘要】Objective To investigate the incidence and influencing factors of depression in empty-nest elderly, so as to provide evidence for reducing depression in empty-nest elderly. Methods During July to August 2016, the elderly over 60 years old in Shaanxi Province, including 504 empty-nest elderly and 194 nonempty- nest, were selected convenience sampling method. The Geriatric Depression Scale( GDS), Social Support Scale, and self-designed questionnaire about the general condition were used. ANOVA was applied to analyze the depression scores; Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relation between social support and depressive symptoms; and Logistic regression analysis had been used to analyze the influencing factors of depression. Results The detection rate on depression of empty-nest elderly was 45.63%, and that of the nonempty- nest elderly was 32.99%, the difference was statistically significant( χ2=10.447,P < 0.05). The scores of GDS of the empty-nest and non-empty-nest elderly were( 9.68±5.26) and( 8.51±4.69) respectively, and the difference was statistically significant( t=7.390,P< 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that living pattern( OR=0.596), degree of education( OR=0.799), age( OR=1.394), place of abode( OR=1.699), happiness degree of later life( OR=1.663) and current life satisfaction( OR=1.474) were correlated with depressive symptom (P< 0.05). In addition, Pearson correlation analysis indicated that the social support of the empty-nesters was negatively correlated with depression( r=-0.260,P<0.01). Conclusions The incidence of depression is high in empty-nest elderly, which seriously affects the physical and mental health of them. Targeted measures should be taken to provide more comprehensive social support for empty-nest elderly, improve their life quality and reduce the incidence of depression.

【关键词】老年人; 抑郁; 社会支持; 空巢; 影响因素
【关键词】Aged; Depression; Social support; Empty-nest; Influencing factors